Note For Anyone Writing About Me

Guide to Writing About Me

I am an Autistic person,not a person with autism. I am also not Aspergers. The diagnosis isn't even in the DSM anymore, and yes, I agree with the consolidation of all autistic spectrum stuff under one umbrella. I have other issues with the DSM.

I don't like Autism Speaks. I'm Disabled, not differently abled, and I am an Autistic activist. Self-advocate is true, but incomplete.

Citing My Posts

MLA: Zisk, Alyssa Hillary. "Post Title." Yes, That Too. Day Month Year of post. Web. Day Month Year of retrieval.

APA: Zisk, A. H. (Year Month Day of post.) Post Title. [Web log post]. Retrieved from

Thursday, February 26, 2015

#AutismSpeaks10 Aren't #AutismChampions.

I've been fairly active on Twitter the last few days with the Autistic and allied takeover of the #AutismSpeaks10 hashtag, and now the new tag, #AutismChampions (the s at the end is important, because without it you wind up in a different tag.)

I've also been super-busy offline, and I've been working on some cool advocacy, activism, and art stuff that's not ready yet, so I've not had enough time for that and blogging typically. In lieu of a more typical blog post, here's embeddings of all my original tweets to those two tags. :)

I seriously recommend looking at both tags, though, and maybe retweeting some stuff or adding your own! Warning, though: Some of the stuff Autism Speaks has done is really triggering, and we are talking about it.

(The Chinese tweet is a translation of this.)

(This is Chinese for the TNJU (Tianjin Normal University) tweet.)

Wednesday, February 11, 2015

Democratizing Innovation notes

I actually read Democratizing Innovation a while ago, having reviewed it back in 2013. But I realized that I hadn't put my notes up yet (just a review) so here they are. You can get the book for free as a pdf at the authors website.

“I first ask them how satisfied they are with their backpack. Initially, most say, “It's OK.” But after some discussion, a few complaints will slowly begin to surface (slowly, I think, because we all take some dissatisfaction with our products as the unremarkable norm.)”
But there are still a bunch of students who decide to make some sort of change to their backpack to make it at least a little better.

“adding more beta testers... increases the probability that someone's toolkit will be matched to the problem in such a way that the bug is shallow to that person.” (Raymond qtd in von Hippel.)
That is, adding more people who look at a problem increases the chances that the solution will be simple to someone

The assets of some user will then generally be found to be a just-right fit to many innovation development problems.”

parallel between user-innovator and scholar-activist?

In the early days of computing, it was common to freely share software and modifications to it. Almost as soon as the first firm restricted access to source code, counters including the General Public License started appearing. Some people started calling these “copyleft.”

hacker culture as an anarchist thing?

Conventional economic language talks about producers and consumers, supply and demand, but Weber notes that “the open source process scrambles these categories” (qtd in von Hippel) as users become part of the production process. He also suggests this integration could occur in other areas.
In open source, users are able to make complicated products themselves, like Firefox and Linux. (A user is kind of like a consumer, but it's a word that still works when the user is also the one making the thing.)

Experts in many fields form interest groups and informally help each other, freely revealing information in ways similar to that of open source processes. (von Hippel.)

Amabile, T. M. 1996. Creativity in Context. Westview.
Antelmon, Kristin. 2004. “Do Open Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?” College and Research Libraries 65, no 5: 372-382
Christensen, C. M. 1997. The Innovator's Dilemma. Harvard Business School Press.
Morris, A. D. and C. McClurg, eds. 1992. Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. Yale University Press.
Harhoff, D., J. Henkel, and E. von Hippel. 2003. Profiting from Voluntary Information Spillovers: How Users Benefit by Freely Revealing Their Innovations.” Research Policy. 35, no 10:1753-1769.
Mishina, K. 1989. Essays on Technological Evolution. PhD Thesis, Harvard University.
Von Hippel, E. 1976. The Dominant Role of Users in the Scientific Instrument Innovation Process. Research Policy 5, no 3: 212-39

Tuesday, February 10, 2015

Fiction and Representation (For Me)

After many, many years of being asked to visualize things and never being able to do it, and not forming pictures of characters or places in my head as I read, and never being able to accurately guess what a place actually looks like based on floor plans, I have reached the conclusion that I don't have a minds eye. (I reached the conclusion a while ago, so this isn't new, but it's relevant to the slightly unusual way I interact with representation in fiction.)

In fact, not only do I not come up with a mental image of a character as I read, but I also don't really remember the details of how a character is described as looking. (For similar reasons, I don't pay much attention to those details while I'm writing, which I'm working on because I know representation matters to people in all the ways they can interact with the information, and if I don't provide descriptions that show otherwise, people are going to assume all my characters are cisgender heterosexual able white people.)

One example I like to use for this is Hermione. The book descriptions of Hermione could be describing me, and I didn't realize this. After I saw the first movie, with Emma Watson as Hermione, while they were still trying to give her actual frizzy hair, I picked up on the bit where Hermione is a character who looks like me, but that didn't make Emma's Hermione take over the non-existent slot for my mental picture of Hermione. It didn't make me take over the non-existent slot either, because that slot doesn't exist. (Also, the book version of Hermione and I are fairly similar, personality-wise, which is the way that I can understand and interact with.)

For me, the non-existence of mental images for characters means that I personally don't much care what a character looks like. I care about it for the people who'll notice and care because they have minds eyes like that, and I care about it some (still not much) in movies because the pictures are given to me, but as far as making me feel represented goes, it really doesn't matter what the character looks like. I need characters who act like me, whether or not they look anything like me.

Give me characters who are awkward even when it isn't cute. Give me characters who avoid shopping because it's loud and bright. Give me characters whose interests don't line up with the idea of "geek" or "jock" or "creative type" or any of those, but have a mix from all. Give me characters who are good, really good, at some of the things they like but have to work hard to even manage "not terrible" for some of the others. Give me characters who act like me, with personalities like mine.

The physical descriptions matter for the people who can translate those to images, but that's not me and it will probably never be me. 

Monday, February 9, 2015

"Class" Discussion.

Over my winter break, I worked on a syllabus for a disability studies class aimed at engineering students, meant for the special section that the Society For Disability Studies is putting into one of their upcoming issues. (At least, I think that's how the section is working.)

I was talking to a professor in the school of education at my university (I have contacts in my university now! Yay!) We got to talking about books and reading, because her specialty is with English and I'm a bookworm. Somehow or other, the fact that she really liked the short story Harrison Bergeron came up. At this point, I mentioned that in one of the weeks of that syllabus I made, there are only two "readings." One is Harrison Bergeron, a short story by Kurt Vonnegut. The other is Fixed, a documentary about the science and fiction of human enhancement.

I wound up lending her my DVD of Fixed because she said it sounded interesting, and I left her with the question of why she thinks I'd put those two readings together. Now I'm opening it up here: anyone familiar with both pieces have any ideas on how they could work together in a class discussion? It doesn't need to be the same reasons/ways I have (note that I haven't said what those are anyways.) I'm curious, because I suspect that there's way more possibilities than the ones I've got.

Wednesday, February 4, 2015

Scholarship in the Digital Age Notes

And yet another "Alyssa reads a thing, here's sier notes." Yes, these are books I've been reading as I work on various chapters and papers and proposals as an academic person. 
Citation for the book, as per usual.
Borgman, Christine L. Scholarship in the Digital Age: Information, Infrastructure, and the Internet. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2007.
And here's my notes!

In the first chapter, Borgman notes that much of the content of the Internet is unverified/unverifiable stuff like blogs and list serv discussions. As more and more academics blog, I question both the unversified nature and the unverifiable nature of these forms of media- blog posts with references exist- I know because I write these.
“Students acquire an insatiable appetite for digital publications, and then find on graduatiion that they can barely sample them without institutional affiliations” (3.) This is a huge, huge problem for independent scholars, especially poor independent scholars. And guess who's more likely to be an independent scholar rather than have affiliations? Exactly the same people who face barriers to participation in academia.
Nevertheless, making content that was created for one audience useful for another is a complex problem. Each field has its own vocabulary, data structures, and research practices. People ask questions in different ways, starting with familiar terminology. (10.)
Basically the quote I just copied in above. This is a big argument in favor of the disciplinary versioning with discipline-nonspecific version approach, though it also raises a question: what is the current intended audience, and should that be the indended audience? In conversations about disability, disabled people need to be part of the main intended audience, not an add on.
“Journal articles are more valuable if one can jump directly from the article to those it cites and to later articles that cite the source article” (10.) Oh hey, the Chinese journal system I used to download a ton of papers when I was in Tianjin can do that. It was useful, except for the part where a lot of papers didn't actually cite anyone...
Wissenschaften is apparently a German word that covers sciences, social sciences, and humanities. That is really cool. Also, cyberwissenschaften for the cyber kind. That's cool, but it's German and that means most USAians won't really know or use it. Sads. Cyberscience: Research in the Age of the Internet by Nentwich apparently talks about this some. Woo linguistics but sads because English.
I think I need to find William Gibson's novel, Neuromancer.
“Notions of scholarship, information, and infrastructure are deeply embedded in technology, policy, and social arrangements” (33.)
“Underlying the technical and policy developments are theories and philosophies about what is socially acceptable and appropriate” (33.)
“Scholars in the twenty-first century continue to use those channels [in person, by phone, and by mail,] while also communicating via e-mail, blogs, and chat” (47.) Ok so blogs are unverfied and unverifiable, but also are a way scholars talk to each other? That makes SO MUCH SENSE. Oh wait, no, it really doesn't.
Oh hey, problems with peer review. Ibby talked about those some in the cognitive accessibity and why we should share piece on the feminist wire, too. Lets see what Borgman's got to say.
“Double-blind reviewing is difficult to maintain, especially in online environments, as authors can be identified by searching for similar work on the topic of the paper.” (61.)
Cronin, B.- interesting author. The Citation Process: The Role and Significance of Citations in Scientific Communication (1984), The Hand of Science: Academic Writing and Its Rewards, (2005.)
Peer review is a social process, with all the problems that can come from social processes.
Open posting and review of papers where anyone may comment brings up the question of who is a peer. The system used to be pretty well closed, with authors and reviewers being the same set of people. (I'm totally in favor of questioning who is a peer, the current system is super elitist. Not sure what Borgman thinks of blowing it open like this, I think she's trying to sound unbiased here?)
“Reviewing can be a conservative process that is more likely to reinforce the norms of a field than to identify significant breakthroughs. Articles that are ultimately highly cited often have difficulty getting published.” (62.) She cites McCook 2006, Meadows 1998, Nature 2006, Shatz 2004, and Weller 2000, 2001 for this. So many citations, here's the full ones below now.
McCook, A. (2006). Is Peer Review Broken? Scientist 20 (2): 26.
Meadows, A. J. (2001). Communicating Research. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Nature Peer Review Trial and Debate. (2006). Nature. <>
Shatz, D. (2004). Peer Review: A Critical Inquiry. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
Weller, A. C. (2000). Editorial peer review for electronic journals: Current issues and emerging models. Journal of American Society for Information Science and Technology 51 (14): 1328-1333.
Weller, A. C. (2001). Peer Review: Its Strengths and Weaknesses. Medford, NJ: Information Today.
“New technologies did not result in shifting the balance among stakeholders as radically or as rapidly as some had hoped, largely because social practices are much more enduring than are technologies (65.)
“In a print world, most relationships are bibliographic references to other documents or to data sources. In a digital world, these references can be automated links that will take the reader directly to the source document or even the cited passage within that document.” (70.)
“With active links, readers can follow a trail directly to sources and data, and may be more likely to verify claims” (70.)
Information technologies now enable anyone to be a publisher, in the generic sense that anything “made public” is published. Nevertheless, the supposedly low barriers to entry in computer-based publishing ignore the complex relationships between stakeholders. “Self-publishing” is an oxymoron in the scholarly world. Authors need peer-reviewers; publishers need authors, editors, and reviewers; and libraries need content to collect, organize, make accessible, and preserve. (76.)
Because academic publishing doesn't do the whole self-publishing thing, depending on others reviews before permitting publication, the lowering of technical barriers to publishing is insufficient on its own to make stakeholder voices be heard in academic conversations. The lowered technical barriers to entry mean that a social change of listening to stakeholders and inviting them into conversations are easier to do from a logistics standpoint. That's it.
Changes in online review led to asking “who is a peet?” “When considering the legitimization of digital documents online, the question becomes, “legitimate to whom?” (84.)
“Students, practitioners, scholars with minimal access to the published literature, and the general public usually are happy to read and cite any free version of a document they can find online” (84.)
Posting documents online was considered prior publication as far as journals were concerned for a while. As more and more authors took advantage of the interent to post working copies of papers on repositories and personal websites, the policy changed, and such posting and circulation became an informal communication which no longer prevented journal publication. [Like Melanie Yergeau's blog post that got expanded into an article on Disability Studies Quarterly!]
The ways that people actually read (or decide whether or not to read) scholarly publications aren't perfectly suited to print, with skimming of titles, abstracts, and conclusions more common than reading the entire article linearly. Similar jumping around sections is common for books as well. Electronic publications could take advantage of their increased flexibility, including the lack of requirement for linearity, and design for these actual habits. However, this doesn't usually happen. Online texts typically attempt to be just as linear as print texts.
Scholarly information never will be completely translatable between disciplines any more than languages ever will be perfectly translatable. Some ideas within fields cannot be fully expressed in the language of another field, just as some ideas in French or Chinese cannot be fully expressed in English. We can improve the transmission and translation of ideas through tools and practices, however. (230.)
I think that also ties in with the paradigm stuff that Nick Walker talks about in his essay where he describes the neurodiversity paradigm. Ideas from different paradigms don't really translate well to others, usually. Sometimes a piece of data can be picked up from one and re-interpreted in another, but it's a lot of work.
The lack of perfect translatability between academic fields is both a strength and a weakness of information infrastructure. It is a strength in that fields can express themselves in the full richness of their own languages. It is a weakness in that rich internal structures can create rigid boundaries between fields. Interdisciplinary work depends on the ability to span those boundaries. (231-232.)
Forfeiting the richness of local language is too high a price to pay for interoperability. (232.)
These two bits line up big time with the whole translation thing. Translators are important, both across disciplines and between activists and academics, and all kinds of cultural differences within and outside academia.

And now I go through the references section for stuff I'd read if time were infinite. I probably won't read most of it, though, because time isn't infinite.
Artandi, S. (1973). Information concepts and their utility. Journal for the American Society for Information Science 24 (4): 242-245.
Bailey, C. (2005). Open Access Bibliography: Liberating Scholarly Literature with e-Prints and Open Access Journals. Washington, D.C: Association of Research Libraries. <> (URL is from 2006, might not still be working.)
Barnett, G. A., Fink, E.L., and Debus, M. B. (1989). A mathematical model of citation age. Communication Research 16 (4): 510-531.
Crane, D. (1972). Invisible Colleges: Diffusion of Knowledge in Scientific Communities. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Journal of Documentation- the article cited is way out of date now but the journal sounds cool.
Day, R. E. (2001). The Modern Invention of Information: Discourse, History, and Power. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Dillon, A. (1994). Designing Usable Electronic Text. London: Taylor and Francis.
Duguid, P. (2005). “The art of knowing”: Social and tacit dimensions of knowledge and the limits of community of practice. Information Society 21 (2): 109-118.
Gieryn, T. F. (1999). Cultural Boundaries of Science: Credibility on the Line. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hemlin, S. and Rasmussen, S. B. (2006). The shift in academic quality control. Science, Technology, and Human Values 31 (2): 173-198.
Hughes, T. P. Human-Built World: How to Think about Technology and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kling, R. (2004). The Internet and Unrefereed Scholarly Publishing. In Annual Review of Information Scheice and Technology, ed. B. Cronin, 38: 591-631. Medford, NJ: Information Today.
Knorr-Cetina, K. (1999). Epistimic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. Camrbridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, B. We Have Never Been Modern. Trans. C. Porter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Latour, B., and Woolgar, S. (1986). Laboratory Life: The Construction of Scientific Facts. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tenopir, C., and King, D. W. (2002). Reading behaviour and electronic journals. Learned Publishing 15: 259-265.

Tenopir, C., and King, D. W. (2004). Communication Patterns of Engineers. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Stumbled On: The Engineering Handbook of Smart Technology for Aging, Disability, and Independence

It's a PDF version, and I found it here. Since I'm in engineering and in disability, this is the kind of thing I am always interested in when I find it. Though I am definitely worried/expecting that it will be super medical model or maybe scientific model because that's where engineering tends to hang out.

First things first: the whole book citation is:
Helal, Abdelsalam A., Mounir Mokhtari, and Bessam Abdulrazak, eds. The Engineering Handbook of Smart Technology for Aging, Disability, and Independence. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. PDF.
The select tool lets me select text, rather than selecting the page as an image, which I think means it's screen-readable.

It is one of those books where the different chapters have different authors, so when actually using it the different chapters get cited differently under most style guides. Yay for how long the works cited is going to be when I use books like this?

Also, the pdf is 971 pages long. Not every page in that is part of any chapter, but that is a lot of pages. There is no way I am sitting down and reading the whole thing. So I'm going to start with the table of contents and the index to figure out what to read on a first pass through, after which I'll make said pass through and take notes on that. Other parts, I may go back and read when they seem relevant to a particular project I'm working on. It's happened.

The chapters I think I want to read in full are:

  • International Policy Context of Technologies for Disabilities: An Analytic Framework. 49-60. Rene Jahiel.
  • ISO 9999 Assistive Products for Persons with Disability: Classification and Terminology. 117-126. Ir. Theo Bougie.
  • Part II: Users, Needs, and Assistive Technology. Chapters 7-12, p 127-236.
  • The Communication Assistant (Alternative Communication). 297-316. Leanne L.West.
  • Context Awareness. 585-606. Jadwiga Indulska and Karen Henricksen.
  • Universal Design/Design for All: Practice and Method. 803-818. Edward Steinfeld.
  • Usability in Designing Assistive Technologies. 855-866. Jean-Claude Sperandio and Marion Wolff.
That's a total of 12 chapters, which is still a lot, but considering that there are a total of 49 chapters it's a significant reduction.

Going through the index, I also want to spot-read pages:
2, 5-7, 11-24, 29, 31-35, 39-41, 46-47, 65-68, 72-74, 101-116, 121, 130, 257-259, 273, 282-286, 291-292, 322-334, 389-392, 397-399, 441, 572-574, 616, 793, 712, 770-772, 788-793, 823-824, 826-829, 846-848, 907-920.

Yeah, I've got a lot of reading to do now. But I'm hyperlexic and interested in the topic, so yay!

Monday, February 2, 2015

Technology and Social Inclusion Notes

And yet more "Alyssa reads a thing, and then sticks sier notes online" type stuff. This time, I read Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide
Full citation is: 
Warschauer, Mark. Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2003. 
And yes, there is a lot of MIT Press stuff on my shelves. I get to the physical store a few times a year and they have a sale/hurt books shelf that lets me get academic books for often $3 or $5. This is useful. Anywho, the notes.

Projects to increase access and use of computers and the internet run into problems when they focus too much on simply providing hardware and software, rather than on human and social systems that need to change if the technology's existence is going to change anything.
“The stereotype of disconnected minority groups could even serve to further social stratification by discouraging employers or content producers from eaching out to those groups” (7.)
“The digital divide framework provides a poor map for using technology to promote social development because it overemphasizes the importance of the physical presence of computers and connectity to the exclusion of other factors that allow people to use ICT for meaningful ends” (7.)
Note: ICT=information and communcation technology.
Book works as one more citation for extra utility of the internet for disabled people, woot!
Literacy and internet technology education are both more effective when using content relevant to the learners needs and social conditions. It's often best to have this content created by the learners!
Reading and understanding typically involves the use of a large amount of background knowledge. [Book uses example of basketball game. Call for submissions example mine.] When reading a call for submissions, a person uses their knowledge of the topic (as long as the topic is explained in words that cause retrieval of this knowledge- a disabled person might not know the academic terms to describe their experiences even though they are expert on the actual experiences.) They would also use any familiarity with the typical format of calls for submissions, the writers of the call, the site the call is posted on, and whatever event (forum, conference, book, etc) the call is for.
Literacy, then, is political and cultural. The academic writer on any given topic is expected to speak the language of academia, to value the same ways of knowing and evaluating things that academics in that topic do, to argue in similar ways and for similar things that the dominant academics in that topic do. [And now I build my stuff on it] This is going to exclude writers who have been and continue to be marginailzed by academics and experts from writing about their reality in general, and the reality of their exclusion in particular. Bad, bad, bad. It also means that understanding an internet call for submissions will require both academic and internet literacies, both of which are based in certain cultural ways of doing things (which sometimes contradict, just to make it harder.)
Many interent resources require a high level of (culturally defined) literacy, including tutorials explaining how to make use of computers and the internet.
Content that addresses disabled people's needs is often lacking, both in terms of format (can we access the site?) and subject matter (are our needs and interests addressed by the site?)
Apparently European portals for disabled people exist! Rehab type programs, assistive tech, education, work adaptation, training, and legal stuff are all there. (I think culture, activism, calls for submissions about disability should all be around so that the portals encourage disabled people to be in discussions about disability. Not sure if those are there.)
This reminds me of the Chinese site that I check on occasion, it's got essays including a review of Design Meets Disability. Warschauer cites European Commissions e-Inclusion stuff from 2001.
Neumann, P. and C. Uhlenküken. 2001. Assistive Technology and the barrier-free city: A case study from Germany. Urban Studies: 38 (2): 367-376. Apparently mentions a database run by Muenster, Germany that has a database and interactive street map for mobility accessibility, including for services like transit, recreation, and medical stuff.
Reminds me a bit of the Ableride site, if that's what it's called? Reviews a la Yelp, but for access information.
Machine translation, already present and common online, is not yet of sufficient quality to reduce the utility of having a common langauge, and it may be a while until this happens. (But it's still a whole lot better than nothing, or than having your different langauge willfully misinterpreted!)
Jim Cummins (1984) draws a distinction between Basic Communication Interpersonal Skills and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency. Since what I'm talking about is basically the idea that the first should be enough to talk/write about issues affecting your own life and be listened to, I think I need to at least look at his thing. Citation is:
Cummins, J. 1984.
Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.
Related to this, I want to note that being able to explain the issues one faces does not imply being able to understand an academic call for submissions or being able to write the explanation in the same words an academic would use.
The creative writing on computers in Chinese thing looks interesting to me. He, K and J. Wu. 2001. Innovative research to achive the objectives of eight-year-old Chinese children's ability to read and write: The experiementation of integrating information technology into language literacy education. Unpublished manuscript, Beijing Normal University, China. (WHY MUST IT BE UNPUBLISHED I WANT TO READ IT.)
In some situations, the Internet's most important role may be to allow people simply to find each other.” (188.) Yes. This. Finding out that we're not alone, organizing, etc. Especially for marginalized minorities whose minority status is probably not heritable. He gives the example of gay people here, I mention disability. Sure, some disabilities are heritable, but not all. Not sure if it's even most.
People who aren't getting as much support for their illnesses (and presumably disabilities?) face to face tend to spend more time in online support areas. This is not even a little bit surprising.
Drawing a distinction between the institution of academia and the organization that is any given university, like Warschauer does, I note that these changes in individual practices I am suggesting both require and help bring about significant changes in the whole institution of academia: academia has been an exclusive and elite institution and I am suggesting it become inclusive and turn the current hierarchy of who is expert on the issues any given group faces upside down- the people who face them know most and should be most listened to.
Woo, time to go through the references to see if any paper/chapter titles look particularly interesting. I'm gonna be picky, though, cause most of the stuff I'm seeing is from 2001 and earlier, which for an internet thing is a bit out of date.
Blom, J.-P., and J. J. Gumperz. 1972. Social meaning in linguistic structures: Code-switching in Norway. In Directions in Sociolinguistics, ed. J. J. Gumperz and D. Hymes, 407-434. New York: Holt, Weinhart, and Winston.
Friere, P. 1994. Pedagogy of the oppressed. 3rd ed, New York: Continuum.

Stanley, L. 2001. Beyond access. Occasional Paper 2. San Diego, Calif: UCSD Civic Collaborative.